"Undertake this journey for the remission of your sins,
with the assurance of the imperishable glory of the Kingdom of Heaven!"
Pope Urban II, in one of history's most powerful speeches, initiated 200 years of the Crusades at the Council of Clermont, France on November 27, 1095 with this impassioned plea. In a rare public session in an open field, he urged the knights and noblemen to win back the Holy Land, to face their sins, and called upon those present to save their souls and become "Soldiers of Christ."2 Those who took the vow for the pilgrimage were to wear the sign of the cross (croix in French): and so evolved the word croisade or "Crusade." By the time his speech ended, the captivated audience began shouting "Deus le volt! - God wills it!" 3 The expression became the battle-cry of the crusades.
This brief paper reviews the background that led to the crusades; recounts the actual crusades themselves; and concludes with a reflection on the aftermath of the crusades and the relevance to our world today.
THE BACKGROUND OF THE CRUSADES
Why did Pope Urban II call for the recapture of the Holy Land? Three reasons are primarily given for the beginning of the Crusades: (1) to free Jerusalem and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; (2) to aid and defend the suffering Christians of the East, hopefully healing the rift between Roman and Orthodox Christianity following the Schism of 1054; and (3) to marshal the energy of the constantly warring feudal lords and knights into the one cause of "penitential warfare."
Free Jerusalem and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Jerusalem and the Holy Land serve as the home of Israel and the Christian faith. Jesus Christ was born in Bethlehem about 4 BC. His legal father Joseph was of the Israelite House of David (Luke 2:4) and his mother Mary was of Levitical descent through her cousin Elizabeth (Luke 1:5). Jesus the Christ lived during the time of the Herodians, who served as vassal Kings for the Romans. The Holy Family fled to Egypt to avoid the Massacre of the Innocents (Matthew 2:13-15), but returned to Nazareth of Galilee after the death of Herod. He visited the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem at age twelve with his parents during Passover (Luke 2:41-52). His adulthood lasted during the reign of the Roman Emperor Tiberius and the Procurator Pontius Pilate. John recorded that Jesus of Nazareth went to Jerusalem during his ministry to attend three Passovers and also the Feast of the Dedication (John 10:23). Before his Passion and Crucifixion, Christ lamented over the fate of Jerusalem (Luke 19:41-44) and prophesied its destruction (Mark 13:2).5
Titus, the son of the Roman Emperor Vespasian, destroyed the Jerusalem Temple and the city in 70 AD in response to a Jewish revolt. All that remains of the Jerusalem Temple is the Western wall of the Temple courtyard, known as the Wailing Wall, which is a place of mourning and prayer for the Hebrew people to this day. The Roman Emperor Hadrian, after the Jewish Bar Kokhba revolt of 132-135 AD, dispersed the Jewish people and renamed Judea, the birthplace of Christ, Palestine.
Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 that ended Christian persecution. It was not until Constantine and his mother Helena restored Jerusalem in the fourth century that Christian pilgrimages to Jerusalem became safe for those who had the means to travel. After Hadrian’s pagan temple was dismantled, Helena discovered the True Cross. She then ordered the construction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre over the site of Christ’s burial and Resurrection, which was completed in 335 AD. 6
Muhammad (570-632 AD), the founder of Islam, was born in Mecca to the Quraysh tribe. He took flight to Medina in 622 AD, known as the Hejira, and built a mosque there to worship God. He then took to the sword and conquered Mecca in 630 AD and cleansed the Kaaba with the Black Stone of all idols and rededicated it to the one true God. Mecca is the home of Islam to this very day, and all Muslims are to pray in the direction of Mecca. The founding of Islam by Muhammad changed the complexion of the Middle East. The four Rightly Guided Caliphs were the immediate successors to Muhammad and rapidly expanded Islamic territory. The concept of holy war, or jihad, to further religious aims was embraced by the followers of Islam. The Muslims under the Caliph Umar captured Jerusalem in 638 AD, and the Patriarchates of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria were placed under the control of the Caliphates. Islam was supposed to be a tolerant religion in victory to Religions of the Book in keeping with the teachings of Muhammad. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem was allowed to remain Christian, and Christians were allowed to practice their religion with the payment of a special tax, called the jizya.
Islam under the Umayyad Dynasty expanded through Morocco into the Iberian Peninsula. The year 711 saw the Muslims conquer the Christian Visigoths and capture nearly all of Spain except the northern rim, where they were held off by Pelayo at Covadonga in Asturias in 722. It was only their defeat by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours near Poitiers in 732 that stopped the Western European advance of Muslim forces. Spain was named Al-Andalus by Muslim leaders, where Muslims, Jews, and Christians for a while lived side by side in a spirit of religious toleration. The Reconquista of Spain, or the unification of Spain under Christian rule, was not completed until the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, when Granada was captured from the Moors on January 2, 1492.
The three holiest pilgrimage sites for Christians in the medieval world were Jerusalem, Rome, and Santiago de Compostela, the tomb of the Apostle St. James, the Patron Saint of Spain. The Aghlabid Saracens of North Africa plundered the Churches of St. Peter and St. Paul Outside the Walls at Rome in 846.9 Spain was troubled in 997 when the Moor Almanzor of Córdoba sacked the city and cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in the northwest tip of Spain, but spared the tomb of St. James (Santiago in Spanish). He took the cathedral bells of the church as a memento of his victory and placed them in the great mosque of Córdoba, where they stayed until the reconquest of Córdoba by Fernando III of León and Castile in 1236, when they were returned to Santiago. Europe was shocked when Hakim, the Fatimid Caliph of Egypt, after ravaging Churches and Monasteries in Cairo, destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem in 1009.10 This only heightened the fear of apocalypse in European medieval thought at the turn of the first millennium - the concern over the "thousand years" noted in Chapter 20 in the Book of Revelation.
Defend The Christian East
The founding of the French Benedictine monastery of Cluny in 910 led to the spiritual renewal of the Church and Western culture. Three monks from Cluny - Gregory VII, Urban II, and Paschal II - served as reform Popes who addressed the issues of lay investiture, simony, and clerical marriage.
It was also a period of estrangement between East and West. One of the most tragic events in Christianity was the Schism of 1054 that split the Catholic Church in Rome and the Byzantine Orthodox Church in Constantinople. What began as a conciliatory effort between Pope Leo IX of Rome and the Greek Patriarch Michael Cerularius of Constantinople ended in disaster. The abrasive papal envoy Cardinal Humbert delivered a Papal Bull of excommunication (after Leo IX had died), and laid it on the altar during the afternoon liturgy at the Church of Hagia Sophia on Saturday July 16, 1054. The offended Eastern Church then excommunicated the papal envoy. The event has become symbolic for the distrust and strain between East and West that developed through the centuries.
The language of Rome was Latin, but that of Constantinople Greek.
There was a difference in perception of Church authority between the East and West. All of the early Christian Churches were followers of Jesus Christ from the time of the Apostles, and considered themselves one holy, catholic and apostolic Church. Each developed and retained their ancient and distinctive liturgies, rites, and customs. However, Latin Rome asserted the Pontiff, as the representative of Peter, had supreme authority over all of Christianity, whereas the Greek East considered the Pope, the Bishop of Rome and the representative of Peter, as presiding "with love, as a first among equals." Decisions made in the first seven ecumenical Councils of the Church were universally recognized by East and West.
The difference in perception of Church authority produced the conflict over the addition of the word filioque ("and the Son") to the Nicene Creed by the Roman Catholic Church. The Nicene Creed originated at the Council of Nicaea in 325, and was expanded to quote John 15:26, "the Holy Spirit proceeding from the Father" at the Council of Constantinople in 381, to form the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed.
Theological thought on the Trinity progressed with time, particularly with St. Augustine, who saw the Holy Spirit as an expression of love between the Father and the Son. Charlemagne requested the word filioque to be added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, so the phrase in the West would read "the Holy Spirit who proceeds from the Father and the Son." Pope Leo III at the time refused to allow the change and supported the original Creed; however the Papacy finally accepted the addition of filioque at the coronation of King Henry II in 1014. The Eastern Orthodox Churches claim that the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed "is the common possession of the whole church and that any change must be done by an ecumenical Council."
A new wave of Muslim aggression by the Seljuk Turks led to Christian persecution in the Holy Land and the invasion of the Byzantine Empire. The slaughter of Armenian Christians and the defeat of the Byzantines at the decisive Battle of Manzikert in 1071 gave the Seljuk Turks possession of Asia Minor.16 The capture of Nicaea in 1081 and Antioch in 1085, and the persecution of Christians in the East heightened during Seljuk Turkish rule. A number of Eastern Christian Churches were destroyed. Under Sharia law, Christian Churches were not allowed to be repaired or new Churches to be built, and Eastern Christians were restricted in the practice of their faith. The Muslim chronicler Al-Azimi of Aleppo reported in 1094 that Syrian ports prevented Byzantine and Frankish pilgrims from crossing to Jerusalem; the survivors informed their respective countries. Constantinople was vulnerable and pilgrimages to Jerusalem virtually ended.
This led Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus to appeal to Pope Urban II for help. The Emperor sent his emissaries to the Pope's Council of Piacenza in the March of 1095, with a request for knights to defend the East. Pope Urban II saw the request by the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus as an opportunity to improve relations between East and West by aiding suffering Christians and the Churches of the East.
The Ten Commandments direct Thou shalt not kill. Jesus Christ was an advocate of peace. St. Martin of Tours in the fourth century declared "I am a soldier of Christ; I must not fight." How could the Pope justify a war when Christianity was a religion of peace?
St. Augustine held that war was just at the bidding of God or a legitimate authority, for a right cause (such as defense of one's property or recovering lost territory), and with the proper intention.18 War traditionally had been a function of the king and state. The breakdown of civil authority during the age of feudalism primarily involved Christians, noblemen, and knights fighting each other over land, possessions, romance, or right of succession! The Church in France attempted to place some measure of control on warlike behavior at the Councils of Le Puy (975) and Charroux (990) by the institution of the Peace of God, which protected the poor, clergy, defenseless women, children, and church property. This expanded to the Truce of God, first declared at the Council of Toulouges (1027), which banned warfare on Sundays and Holy days, as well as Advent and Lent. Both the Peace and Truce of God were further established at the Council of Narbonne in 1054. The movement then spread to Normandy, England, Southern Italy, and Germany. A Code of Chivalry was developed for the proper conduct of knights. The Knights' Code called for the knight to defend and obey the Church and Commandments and to be the champion of right and good against injustice and evil. The Church raised the reception of knighthood to an honor through a Christian ceremony.
Pilgrimage was one form of penance in the medieval world to obtain remission of one's sins, in addition to prayer, fasting, and almsgiving.20 The idea of visiting holy places for forgiveness of sins involved both danger and hardship of travel as well as a form of self-exile from one's home. The penitent seeking forgiveness was a form of evangelization to non-believers in a far-off land.21 The theory of combining pilgrimage with warfare in the defense of Christianity led to the genesis of the concept of crusade.22The goal of Jerusalem was what made the crusade a pilgrimage!23
In the second half of the eleventh-century, Pope Alexander II (1061-1073) offered absolution to French knights who fought for the Cross in Muslim-held Barbastro in Zaragoza, Spain. The reform Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085) believed in spiritual authority over temporal rule and further developed the relationship with knighthood in defense of the Church and the faith during the Investiture Controversy. But it was Pope Urban II (1088-1099) who formally invoked penitential warfare - warfare in the service and defense of the Church for the remission of sins, when he called for the First Crusade on November 27, 1095.
THE ACTUAL CRUSADES
There were eight major Crusades that departed Europe for the Holy Land, with several other campaigns interspersed between 1096 and 1291. This paper will primarily focus on the successful First Crusade, review the Third and Fourth Crusades, and present a capsule of the remaining five.
The First and Third Crusades were the best described of the expeditions to the Holy Land. Primary sources for the First Crusade include the letters of Pope Urban II; the Gesta Francorum (the Deeds of the Franks), which was written by an anonymous crusader who accompanied the Normans Bohemond and Tancred; the chronicles of Raymond of Aguilers, who accompanied Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Raymond of Toulouse; Αλεξιάς - the Alexiad, by Anna Comnena, daughter of Alexius, the Byzantine Emperor; and Fulcher of Chartres, who accompanied Stephen of Blois and then Baldwin of Boulogne on the First Crusade. Robert the Monk of Rheims attended the Council of Clermont and refined the Gesta Francorum in a Christian context - in the light of Divine Revelation and as a fulfillment of the Council; his treatise was perhaps the most popular in the medieval era. The writings of Baldric of Bourgueil and Guibert of Nogent also provided theological refinement to the First Crusade. Matthew of Edessa and William of Tyre were important Eastern sources on the First Crusade and the Crusader States.
There are both Christian and Muslim sources for the Third Crusade. Richard, a canon of the Augustinian priory of Holy Trinity in London, recorded the expedition of King Richard I of England in his Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi (the Itinerary of the Pilgrimage and Deeds of King Richard), as well as the crusader Ambroise, a Norman cleric. Imad al-Din al-Isfahani and Baha al-Din of the Court of Saladin provided the Muslim viewpoint. Pope Gregory VIII called for the Third Crusade in his 1187 encyclical Audita tremendi. Other primary sources for the Third Crusade include Roger of Howden, Peter of Blois and Gerald of Wales.
The First Crusade (1096-1099)
Just as Pope Urban II had finished his speech at Clermont, Adhemar de Monteil, Bishop of Le Puy, volunteered for the expedition. The Pope nominated him to be the Papal Legate and head of the Crusade, to ensure that the Church would lead the effort. The choice was an excellent one, as Adhemar of Puy proved to be fair-minded, calm, and diplomatic in his attempt to coordinate the major armies that crossed Europe in different routes and assembled in Constantinople by early May of 1097.24
Raymond of St. Gilles, Count of Toulouse, was the first who "took up the cross." He made a vow to God, and pledged his service to the Pope and his loyalty to Bishop Adhemar of Puy; the Bishop travelled with Raymond for the entire Crusade. The army left France in October of 1096 and crossed the Alps into Dalmatia and the Balkan states, through Thessalonica, reaching Constantinople in April of 1097.
Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lower Lorraine, and his younger brother Baldwin of Boulogne, took the northern route through Germany and followed the Danube River through Hungary to arrive in Constantinople just before Christmas 1096.
Hugh of Vermandois left from Paris, traveled through Italy to the port of Bari and sailed across the Adriatic Sea to Durazzo in the Balkan States, and then by land reached Constantinople. The same route was followed by Bohemond of Taranto, his nephew Tancred, and the Normans of Southern Italy, who arrived in April of 1097. Robert, Duke of Normandy, his cousins Stephen, Count of Blois, and Robert II, Count of Flanders, took the same route and were the last to arrive in early May of 1097.
While figures vary, it is estimated that from 60,000 to 100,000 Europeans were inspired to take up the cross and begin the expedition to Constantinople in the First Crusade.25
Those who took the vow for the Crusades were truly motivated by their love of Christ. Religious fervor was the source of inspiration throughout the Crusade. However, the greed for earthly riches, the petty rivalries of the leaders, and the brutality of war would create troubles for the Crusaders far beyond Adhemar's control.
MAP OF CONSTANTINOPLE TO THE HOLY LAND
Emperor Alexius deftly handled the Crusaders, and dispatched them across the Bosporus Strait into Asia. The Crusaders laid seige to Nicaea on May 6, 1097, a major stronghold of the Seljuk Turks. During the seige, Alexius sent a flotilla of ships from the west, which induced the Turks to negotiate with the Emperor, who took back Nicaea in June of 1097. The capture of Nicaea was the high point of Greco-Frankish cooperation.
Following a victory at Dorylaeum which routed the Turks, the Crusaders faced the arduous task of crossing the mountainous terrain of Anatolia (modern Turkey) in Asia Minor. The goal to reach Antioch took months to accomplish, and was marked by the Crusaders taking two different routes. Baldwin of Boulogne, Godfrey's younger brother, went through Armenia, and, setting out on his own conquest, captured Edessa. After marrying an Armenian princess, he was invited by the people to rule. The first Crusader state, the County of Edessa, had been established.
The main Crusading force finally reached Antioch, on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea in October of 1097. The first Patriarch of Antioch was St. Peter himself, and following the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD, the city became important to early Christianity. The followers of Christ were first called Christians in Antioch (Acts 11:26). Matthew probably wrote his Gospel there, and Paul set out on his three missionary journeys from Antioch. St. Ignatius of Antioch established the order of Bishop, Presbyter, and Deacon about 110 AD. The Eastern Catholic Maronite Church of Lebanon and the Melkite Byzantine Church of Syria originated in Antioch.
Antioch's defenses were formidable. The crusaders suffered a severe winter, and it would take nine months before the walls could be stormed. Rivalries began, as Bohemond of Taranto wanted Antioch for himself, while Raymond of Toulouse argued that it should be handed back to the Byzantines, as agreed upon in Constantinople. Emperor Alexius had been crossing Asia Minor to aid the Crusaders, but was dissuaded by Stephen of Blois, who had fled Antioch when he thought the Crusaders were doomed. Following a bribe by Bohemond of one of the Turks, the Crusaders scaled the walls and invaded Antioch on June 3, 1098.
The town became a bloodbath with the massacre of the Turks. Just as they had taken over Antioch, they were besieged within the city by an invading Turkish army from Mosul. Trapped within the walls, disease and discouragement set in.
It was then that the Holy Lance, the lance that pierced the side of Christ, was discovered in the Church of St. Peter. Taken as Divine intervention, the Crusaders were rallied. Led by Bishop Adhemar of Puy carrying the Holy Lance, the Crusaders proved invincible. The knights charged, mounted on their horses, and, pressing next to each other, routed the Turks. The cavalry charge was a formidable weapon for the Crusaders throughout their campaigns in the Holy Land.28
Bishop Adhemar of Puy restored John as the Greek Patriarch of Antioch, in keeping with the goal of Urban and Alexius to restore unity between the Roman and Byzantine Churches. However, Adhemar died from an illness on August 1, 1098 and his leadership was sorely missed. When the Fatimids of Egypt heard of the collapse of the Turks, they invaded Palestine and captured Jerusalem in the fall of 1098. Bohemond remained in Antioch, having achieved his goal of taking Antioch for himself, but this produced delay of the pilgrimage to Jerusalem and proved devastating to Roman and Byzantine relations. The second Crusader state, the Principality of Antioch, was established.
Raymond of Toulouse was left the leader of the Crusaders and finally set out for Jerusalem January 13, 1099. Raymond walked barefoot, appropriate for a leader of a pilgrimage. He traveled safely on the coast to Tripoli, Lebanon, where the Emir of Tripoli purchased immunity and gave them supplies. While there, he discovered the Maronites, an Eastern Catholic community in the mountains of Lebanon that had resisted Turkish rule, and who confirmed loyalty to the Pope in 1181. Raymond and the Crusaders passed through Beirut, resisted an attack in Sidon, but traveled through Tyre, Lebanon without difficulty. They sent off Tancred and Baldwin of LeBourg who liberated Bethlehem on June 5, 1099, to the joy of the entirely Christian population.
The Crusaders, known to the Muslims as the Franj or Franks, reached Jerusalem on Tuesday, June 7, 1099, and began their siege. Before their arrival, the Fatimid governor evacuated the Christians from the city, but allowed the Jews to stay. Raymond of Toulouse set up post on Mount Zion. Robert of Normandy took up station on the northern wall opposite the Gate of Flowers (Herod's Gate), with Robert of Flanders on his right at the Damascus Gate. Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine, was joined by his brother, Eustace of Boulogne, and Tancred, and together they covered the northwest to the Jaffa Gate. Morale sank, as an initial attack by the Crusaders failed, and water became scarce. A Genoese fleet arrived with materials to help them scale the walls of the heavily fortified city. But then the priest Peter Desiderius had a vision of the deceased Bishop Adhemar, who urged the Crusaders to fast and then walk barefoot around the city to atone for their sins.
The Crusaders eagerly complied with the penitential rite and then began the attack on July 14. It was Godfrey of Bouillon who first breached the northern wall on July 15, 1099, and the Crusaders flooded into the city of Jerusalem. The Fatimid governor, who had withdrawn into the Tower of David, begged Raymond for his life and was allowed to escape. Maddened after three years of suffering and frustration, the Crusaders massacred both Muslim and Jew within the city.30
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, in the northwest quarter of the old city at the end of Via Dolorosa, was once again in Christian hands. The Crusaders thanked God in a solemn ceremony. Godfrey of Bouillon was chosen as the ruler, taking the title of Defender of the Holy Sepulchre. Jerusalem became the third and principal Crusader state.
The First Crusade was an astonishing success. Only the vow to fulfill God's will on the pilgrimage to Jerusalem could have sustained the crusaders, who were consistently outnumbered and faced near-starvation during the bitter winter at Antioch.31 Most of the crusaders, having fulfilled their vow, returned home. Fulcher of Chartres reported that Jerusalem was left with only "300 knights and as many footmen" to defend Jerusalem and the surrounding area.
The First Crusade did leave one with a certain irony. The two that began the effort never heard the news - Pope Urban II died on July 29, 1099, before word reached Rome, and Bishop Adhemar had died in Antioch.
The Crusader States and The Military Orders
The Crusaders came into possession of a relic of the True Cross. Veneration of the True Cross was a prerequisite prior to the Crusaders entering battle. Godfrey consolidated the territory around Jerusalem. Hearing of an advancing Egyptian force to recover Jerusalem, the Crusaders launched a surprise attack and routed the Egyptians near Ascalon in August 1099. Godfrey died after only a year on July 18, 1100. Emissaries were sent to his brother Baldwin, the ruler of the County of Edessa, who gave Edessa to his cousin Baldwin of Le Bourg and headed for Jerusalem. Baldwin was crowned King of Jerusalem on Christmas Day, 1100, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem was established.
The Crusader states lived a fragile existence, for, once the lands were conquered, most of the Crusaders, having fulfilled their vows, went home to Europe. But they were able to survive because of Muslim disunity. King Baldwin secured a lifeline to Europe with the capture of several Mediterranean ports with the aid of the Italian city-states, including the natural harbor of Acre in 1104, which would become the center of trade for the Kingdom.
Raymond of Toulouse headed North and governed Latakia with a representative of the Emperor. The only one to stay loyal to Emperor Alexius, he was invited to Constantinople, and turned Latakia over to the Byzantines. Upon his return, he set his sights on Tripoli, and built a fortress called Mount Pilgrim near the city. Raymond died in 1105 before Tripoli was conquered, but his son Bertrand of Toulouse, with the aid of King Baldwin, took over Tripoli on July 12, 1109, and the fourth Crusader state, the County of Tripoli, was established.
The four Crusader states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Edessa, Antioch, and Tripoli collectively became known as Outremer, outre-mer being the French words for "overseas." In time, there developed a fusion of cultures in the Crusader states, where Latin, Eastern Christian, Muslim and Byzantine influences were evident in daily life, the arts, and commercial trade.
One of the positive elements of the Crusade was the restoration of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Fifty years after the capture of Jerusalem, the Crusaders completed and dedicated the church in Romanesque architecture on 15 July 1149. The Church one visits today is the one built by the Crusaders!
The Franks were quick to realize that the only chance for long-term survival of the four Crusader states was mutual cooperation and the presence of a stable military force. An important event was the foundation of the military orders, instituted to defend Outremer and protect the renewed flow of pilgrims into the Holy Land. The military orders were composed of monks who served as knights or performed religious, clerical, and civic functions, as well as the lay who assisted the knights. The Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem were merchants from Amalfi, Italy, who built the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in 1070. Monks under Brother Gerard provided staffing and cared for ill and injured pilgrims, crusaders, and the populace. They were recognized in 1113 by Pope Paschal II. In time they added a military function under Raymond of Le Puy. The Knights Hospitaller wore a white cross and protected pilgrims who entered Jerusalem.37 The Knights Templar were French knights and likely the first to perform military service; instituted in 1119 under Hugh of Payens, they were housed on the grounds of the Temple of Solomon. They wore a red cross and were responsible for the defense of Jerusalem. A group of German crusaders joined with members of the German Hospital in 1190 to begin the Teutonic Knights, known as the Brothers of the Hospital of the Virgin Mary in Jerusalem. They maintained their headquarters in the City of Acre until 1291. The Knights of St. Thomas of Acre were named after the English martyr St. Thomas Becket and were founded by King Richard I of England in 1190 during the Third Crusade. The Order of St. Lazarus was primarily a charitable organization and staffed a hospital for victims of leprosy. The Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem and the Teutonic Order of the Hospital of the Virgin Mary in Jerusalem have survived to the present day!38
King Baldwin I also initiated an extensive building program to ensure survival, which included both the fortification of cities and the construction of Crusader castles. He built the castle at Montreal in Jordan, an important site along the caravan trade route from Egypt to the Levant. Important to defense, subsequent Latin leaders continued to produce Crusader castles throughout the Latin states, such as Beaufort by the Litani River in southern Lebanon in 1139 and Kerak in Jordan in 1142. Many were eventually staffed by the military orders, such as Belvoir, Krak des Chevaliers, and Margat by the Hospitallers, Tortosa (near Margat) by the Templars, and Montfort Castle by the Teutonic Knights.
The Second Crusade (1146-1148)
The capture of Edessa by the Turks in 1144 led Pope Eugenius III to call for a Second Crusade in his encyclical Quantum praedecessores on December 1, 1945, which was reissued in March of 1146.39 St. Bernard, the Abbot of Clairvaux, addressed an assembly at Vézelay, France over Easter of 1146 to initiate support for a crusade, and continued to inspire Western Europe to protect the Latin states of the East. On the way to the Holy Land, a fleet of ships from England led by Hervey de Glanvill, Constable of Suffolk, was forced to land in Portugal because of bad weather. They aided King Afonso Henriques I of Portugal in the capture of Lisbon from the Moors on 24 October 1147. Eugenius III in 1148 extended the crusade indulgence to the recapture of Almería (1147) and Tortosa (1148) in the ongoing Reconquista in Spain.
King Louis VII of France and King Conrad III of Germany led their respective armies into the Holy Land, but the expedition was marked by discord. The Byzantine Emperor Manuel requested Conrad to cross into Asia at the Hellespont (Strait of Dardanelles), but he refused.41 The unruly German army was massacred by the Turks at Dorylaeum in Asia Minor, although Conrad and a small contingent survived. The two Kings finally joined King Baldwin III of Jerusalem and his mother Queen Melisende in an assembly at Acre in June 1148. In view of their reduced force, they decided to attack Damascus. Louis and Conrad set out for Damascus in July 1148, where they were soundly defeated. The Second Crusade was a total failure for the West in the Holy Land, but strengthened the resolve of the Muslims.42
The greatest warrior of the Muslims was Saladin. Noted for his chivalrous behavior, he was respected by both Muslims and Christians alike. Saladin also proved to be a skilled diplomat. The Muslim world was completely divided into the Shiite and Sunni religious sects, as well as the warring secular nations of the Syrians, Egyptians, and Turks. Saladin was the one who brought all of them into one unified Islamic force in the twelfth century.
Saladin began his career as a young Kurdish warrior in the army of his uncle Shirkuh, who commanded the Syrian army and captured Egypt. Shirkuh became vizier of Egypt, the secular head of government under the Shiite Caliph. Shirkuh died shortly thereafter in 1169, leaving his 31 year-old nephew Saladin as vizier of Egypt.
Saladin was a Sunni muslim in the predominantly Shiite land of Egypt. When the Shiite Caliph of Egypt died, Saladin extended the spiritual authority of the Sunni Caliph of Baghdad over Egypt, but at the same time allowed the Shiites to practice their own form of Islamic faith. The religious world of Islam was united. When Nur al-Din, the secular regent of Syria died, Saladin and the Saracens (Muslim warriors) captured Damascus in a bloodless coup. His rise to power signaled the beginning of the Ayyubid Dynasty.44
While Saladin, the new Sultan of Syria and Egypt, was uniting the Moslem world, the Crusader states were in a power struggle after the death of King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, who died at age 24 of leprosy in 1185. His nephew King Baldwin V died in the summer of 1186. Queen Sibylla and her husband Guy of Lusignan won the crown. Saladin set his sights on the Crusader states. He first attacked Tiberias in the county of Tripoli in 1187. The Frankish army foolishly rode out into the desert to the Horns of Hattin, and, deprived of water, were no match for Saladin, who defeated the Franks and captured the True Cross on July 4, 1187.45 King Guy of Lusignan was held captive. Saladin captured Acre on July 10. Unopposed, all the Crusader cities except Tyre fell to Saladin's army as he swept through the Holy Land. At first intent on unconditional surrender, Saladin attacked Jerusalem on September 20, 1187.46 But after ten days of heavy resistance by Balian of Ibelin, Saladin agreed to a financial settlement and captured the city October 2, 1187. The inhabitants of Jerusalem were spared from major bloodshed and injury!47
THE THIRD CRUSADE
The Third Crusade (1189-1192)
The ending of 88 years of formal Christian rule in Jerusalem sent shock waves throughout Europe. Pope Gregory VIII
quickly called for the Third Crusade to liberate Jerusalem. He was greeted with enthusiasm by King Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, King Philip II of France, and Richard, the son of King Henry II. Before Richard left England, his father died, leaving him King Richard I of England. Before the Third Crusade was over, he would be known as Richard the Lionheart.48
King Richard, eager to crusade and join his friend Philip in the Crusades, placed the throne in the hands of his brother John. Several disagreements between Philip and Richard on the way to the Holy Land soured the relationship, however, and their broken friendship affected their cooperation and the outcome of the Third Crusade.
In response to Queen Sibylla's pleas, Saladin released her husband Guy of Lusignan in the summer of 1188. On August 28, 1189 Guy began the Siege of Acre. The port city of Acre was once known as Ptolemais in Biblical times, and served as a stop on the final return of St. Paul to Jerusalem (Acts 21:7). The Crusaders were encamped on the coast, between the fortified City of Acre and Saladin about six miles east on land. King Frederick of Germany crossed the Dardanelles into Asia but drowned in a river in June of 1190 near Tarsus on the way to Antioch, and his German army largely dispersed; only a small German contingent arrived in Acre in October of 1190 led by his son Frederick of Swabia. However, Frederick died of illness 3 months later; his cousin Duke Leopold V of Austria on his arrival in the spring assumed leadership of the German troops. King Philip sailed directly to the city of Acre and arrived on April 20, 1191, which improved the morale of the Crusaders.
King Richard captured Cyprus on the way to the Holy Land, which proved to be of great strategic importance, for it stayed in Latin hands for four centuries. Richard arrived in Acre on June 8. His great energy inspired the troops and Acre surrendered after nearly two years on July 12, 1191.
While no one was as brave as Richard, his hot temper marred his leadership. Richard, Philip, and Leopold placed three banners over Acre to represent their victory, but Richard tore down the German banner. Having fulfilled his vow, King Philip returned to France because of illness and troubles at home, and Leopold of Austria left as well. This proved disastrous to the cause. Richard I became the overall commander of the Crusades with Hugh of Burgundy leading the French. A breakdown in negotiations between Richard and Saladin occurred at this point, and both sides blamed the other. Richard claimed the terms of the surrender of Acre were to be processed within 30 days and that Saladin delayed the settlement in order to stop Richard from heading to Jerusalem. When the deadline passed, Richard on August 20 had 2700 Muslim prisoners-of-war slaughtered by the Franks.
Richard hugged the coast and headed to Jaffa. On September 7, 1191, Saladin attacked Richard at Arsuf, just north of Jaffa, with 80,000 men, three times the size of Richard's army, but Richard led a cavalry charge and routed Saladin's troops.
Their spirits heightened by victory, Richard marched on to Jaffa, and finally reached Beit Nuba, only twelve miles from Jerusalem, on January 3, 1192. But winter had descended upon them, and the military orders advised that, even if Jerusalem were captured, the Knights would be unable to hold onto the city once Richard returned to England. So Richard turned around to rebuild Ascalon and improve supply lines from the coast. A second march towards Jerusalem in June 1192 ended with Richard again turning back at Beit Nuba. The lack of unity among the Crusading armies and a poor supply line made it militarily unwise to proceed. The one time that Richard gazed upon Jerusalem from a distance, he screened his view with a shield, saddened that he would be unable to return the city to Christian hands.50
Saladin attacked the Crusaders at Jaffa. Even though heavily outnumbered, Richard bravely stood his ground and again defeated Saladin. After 15 months in Outremer, Richard captured much of the Mediterranean coast from Saladin, but never attacked Jerusalem.
At this point, the two mighty warriors of the Crusades decided to negotiate. Richard was eager to return home, and Saladin was weary of war. On September 2, 1192, they signed a peace treaty. The Crusader states would retain control of the coastal strip from Tyre to Jaffa, with their other holdings in Antioch and Tripoli. Jerusalem would stay in Muslim hands, but Christian pilgrims would be allowed free access to the Holy sites of the city. The City of Acre rather than Jerusalem became the center for the Crusader States.
THE STRAITS OF BOSPORUS AND THE DARDANELLES
The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204)
One of the primary reasons for Pope Urban II calling for the Crusades was to reconcile Roman and Byzantine Christianity. Any hope for Christian unity was completely dashed by the horrendous Fourth Crusade.
Pope Innocent III commissioned the Fourth Crusade, as Jerusalem was still in Muslim hands. Count Thibaut of Champagne, the nephew of Richard the Lionheart, was the first to pledge, and was joined by Louis of Blois, and Count Baldwin of Flanders. However, Thibaut died, and Marquis Boniface de Montferrat was given command of the Crusade; the papal legate was Cardinal Peter Capuano, who traveled only as far as Venice. Crusaders planned to leave Venice by sea and first attack Egypt and divide the Muslim world before heading to Jerusalem.
They made a contract with the Doge of Venice, under whom the city had become a wealthy and independent political port as the point of entry for trade from the East. However, only a third of the planned force arrived in Venice, and the crusades could only meet part of their obligation to Doge Dondolo. A new agreement was struck: the Doge would forgive the balance if the crusaders would seize the Venetian town of Zara in Dalmatia, which had been lost to the Hungarians. Pope Innocent lll forbade the crusaders to attack fellow Christians in Zara, but the Doge insisted on fulfillment of the agreement. When the news of the sack of Zara on November 24, 1202 reached Rome, Pope Innocent III excommunicated the Doge of Venice and the entire expedition.
In Zara, the Crusaders were approached by envoys of Alexius Angelus, who claimed his father the Byzantine Emperor Isaac II had been wrongfully deposed by Alexius III. The Franks accepted his promise that if they restored his father to the throne, he would finance their crusade to Egypt and Jerusalem.
The Crusaders sailed from Dalmatia, rounded Greece to the Aegean Sea, and passed through the Dardanelles and the Sea of Marmara to arrive off Constantinople on June 24, 1203. To appease matters, the father Isaac II and the son Alexius Angelus IV were installed as co-emperors. However, tensions grew when Alexius could not keep his pledge. In a direct challenge to the Crusaders, Alexius and his father were unseated in a palace coup. When it became evident that the new Emperor would not release the promised funds, the Christian Franks and Venetians attacked the Christian Byzantines and sacked Constantinople on April 12, 1204. For three days, the Franks massacred the citizens while the Venetians looted priceless treasures. Count Baldwin of Flanders took the throne on May 16, 1204, and commenced the Latin Empire of Constantinople. Byzantine leadership moved to Nicaea, but by 1261 had recovered Constantinople.
Runciman has called the 1204 sack of Constantinople "the greatest crime against humanity." The Crusaders never made it to Jerusalem. Roman and Byzantine Christianity have remained severed to our present day. While each Eastern Church has their own unique history, many of the remaining Eastern Churches, except the Maronites and the Italo-Albanians, joined the Byzantine or Greek Orthodox Church of Constantinople.
The Fifth Crusade (1217-1221)
Dismayed that Jerusalem still remained in Muslim hands, Pope Innocent III called for a Fifth Crusade in his encyclical Quia maior in the spring of 1213, and called for the Fourth Lateran Council in November 1215 to reform the Church and generate enthusiasm for the Crusade. But he died on July 16, 1216, and was succeeded by Pope Honorius III. In the meantime, the Kingdom of Acre existed without effective leadership, but survived because of a Muslim power struggle that followed the death of Saladin. The summer of 1217 to the spring of 1218 saw the gathering of forces in Acre. It was decided to attack Damietta in Egypt and then proceed to Jerusalem. John of Brienne, the Latin King of Acre, James of Vitry, Bishop of Acre, the chronicler Oliver of Paderborn with the Frisian and German army, and Duke Leopold VI of Austria arrived in Damietta on May 27, 1218. They achieved an initial success that summer by seizing control of the Nile River at Damietta.56 A prolonged siege of Damietta began, but the arrival of Pelagius, the papal legate, added to leadership conflict. An interlude occurred in August 1219, when St. Francis of Assisi called directly on al-Kamil, the Sultan of Egypt, to restore peace. Damietta finally fell in November 1219. However, many Crusaders were conquered by disease in the Nile Delta, and the Franks became trapped on the way to Cairo. A truce that returned Damietta to the Muslims in August of 1221 freed Crusaders that lived.
The Sixth Crusade (1228-1229)
King Frederick II of Germany and Sicily had vowed to crusade upon his succession to the throne in 1215, but his responsibilities over such a large empire delayed his trip to the Holy Land, much to the detriment of the Fifth Crusade. When he failed to keep his pledge to Honorius III, the new Pope Gregory IX excommunicated Frederick because of his many delays and initial failure to keep his vow. Frederick finally arrived in Acre September 7, 1228. However he chose diplomacy over warfare and negotiated a controversial ten-year agreement in 1229 with al-Kamil, the Sultan of Egypt, for the return of Jerusalem, which actually remained in Christian hands until 1244.
The Seventh Crusade (1249-1250)
The Mongolian invasion, initially led by Genghis Khan, conquered the Orient, Russia, and Central Asia all the way to Baghdad. They established the Mongol Ilkhanate of Persia, which extended to the Euphrates River. The Khwarismian Turks of Persia fled the Mongols and, on the way to Egypt, conquered Jerusalem in 1244.59 Pope Innocent IV called upon the saintly Louis IX, King of France, for the Seventh Crusade. The King, his three brothers, and the chronicler John of Joinville sailed from their base in Cyprus and took Damietta, Egypt in June of 1249. Unfortunately, they made the same mistakes as the Fifth Crusade and were captured on the way to Cairo at Mansurah in 1250. The King had to pay a grand ransom for his army's freedom. Louis IX then sailed to Acre, and stayed until 1254 to strengthen the defenses and organize effective government for the Kingdom of Jerusalem, before returning
home to France.60
The Eighth Crusade (1270-1272) and The Fall of Acre (1291)
The Muslim Mamluks (slave soldiers) of Egypt ended the Mongol scourge at Ain-Jalud on September 3, 1260. The Mamluks then captured the Christian towns of Caesarea and Jaffa; the fall of Antioch and the ruthless slaughter of thousands of inhabitants in 1268 led to the Eighth Crusade.61
After an agreement with his nephew Prince Edward of England, King Louis IX of France began the Eighth Crusade in July of 1270 (during the Papal vacancy of 1268-1271), but died of infectious disease in Tunis on August 25, 1270. Prince Edward then proceeded to Acre with Visconti of Liege in May, 1271. Visconti of Liege soon left Acre, chosen to become Pope Gregory X. The chivalrous Prince, offended by the political infighting and corruption in Outremer, and without the military help of Louis IX, decided on diplomatic efforts and arranged a ten-year truce with the Mamluks in the spring of 1272, which also allowed pilgrimage access to Nazareth. Edward stayed until his wife Eleanor of Castile delivered their daughter and then left Acre on September 22. Upon the death of his father Henry III on November 16, 1272, he became King Edward I of England. It was the last of the Crusades to the Holy Land.
Unchecked, the Mamluks of Egypt easily conquered the rest of Outremer. The fall of the city of Acre to the Mamluk Sultan Khalil on May 18, 1291 ended 192 years of Crusader territory in the Holy Land.63
The spiritual zeal engendered by Pope Urban II helped to inspire the remarkable outcome of the First Crusade. The goal to recapture Jerusalem, to aid the Byzantine East, and to unite Europe in a common cause was a noble effort. Pilgrimages to the restored Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem resumed and have lasted to the present day. The early Crusades did unite Western Europe in a common purpose, provided an influx of Eastern thought into Western culture, and opened new avenues of trade between Europe and the Levant.
But the Crusades ultimately proved to be an example of a high-minded ideal betrayed by human nature. The unsanctioned Peasants' Crusade of 1096 led to massacre of Jews in Mainz and other German towns, but also brought their own destruction. Subsequent crusades, in the hands of warring noblemen, knights, and clerics who struggled for power, land, and riches, proved disastrous, particularly with the Fourth Crusade.
One interesting observation is that, while the record of events for the first three Crusades was relatively consistent throughout the literature, many conflicting reports exist for the Fourth and following Crusades. Did historians lose interest or had the Crusades become an embarrassment by the miserable turn of events?
The crusading effort brought only temporary success, as the Crusader states lasted from 1099 to 1291. And Jerusalem itself was in Christian hands for only 88 years.
Christianity and Islam were thrown into opposition by both the Crusades and the aggressive Turkish Ottoman Empire, which at one point extended from the Balkans throughout the Middle East. The Turks were stopped from further European expansion at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. The first wave of immigration of Middle East Christians to America began when Maronite Catholics of Lebanon fled from persecution by Muslim Druze following the Syrian Civil War of 1860. The major outcome of World War I was the dismantling of the Ottoman Empire, which exposed the slaughter of 1.5 million Armenians at the hands of the Turks. Sheikh Faisal ibn Hussein of Mecca and Lawrence of Arabia led a pan-Arab revolt for independence during the War. Jerusalem itself was controlled by the Ottomans for four hundred years, from 1516 until 1917. British General Edmund Allenby liberated the city on December 11, 1917 near the end of World War I. Often called the Last Crusade, the expedition coincided with the Balfour Declaration on a homeland for Israel and the Jewish liberation song Hava Nagila.
The polarity between Christianity and Islam has lasted to this very day. The Crusades have become quite relevant to current events and may well be prophetic for the future. Today a fragile peace grips Jerusalem, with the presence of the world’s three Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam) who worship and trust in God. Both Israel and the Palestinians are locked in a bitter and endless struggle in their efforts to establish their respective homelands. Middle East Christians in Iraq, Syria, Egypt, and Libya have suffered terribly at the hands of Muslim extremists such as the terrorist Islamic State.
The History of the Crusades provided us with some wonderful
examples of individual heroism. Two figures that received lasting respect by both Christian and Muslim historians alike were Saladin and St. Francis of Assisi. In fact, both were immortalized in a favorable light by Dante65 in the Divine Comedy. Whereas the Franks were barbarians when they captured Jerusalem, Saladin of the Third Crusade recaptured Jerusalem in gentlemanly fashion without loss of life to Christian citizens. St. Francis of Assisi risked his life in the Fifth Crusade by calling directly upon the Sultan of Egypt in an effort to bring peace. The piety of King Louis IX of France was recognized by his canonization in 1297. One cannot help but admire the valour and fortitude exhibited by the early Crusaders, such as Godfrey of Bouillon and Richard the Lionheart. 66
Recent efforts have been made to bridge the gap created by the Crusades. The Second Vatican Council did much to open a dialogue with the Byzantine Orthodox East, and during that time the mutual excommunications of 1054 were lifted.
The Papacy of John Paul II has been one of rapprochement. His 1995 encyclical, That All May Be One,68 called for Christian Unity. In the Jubilee year of 2000 he prayed the traditional Nicene Creed (without filioque) with Orthodox leaders. His visit to Egypt in March 2000 did much to improve relations with Islam. And shortly afterwards, in Jerusalem, he asked God forgiveness for the sins of the Catholic Church.
The inaugural Mass of Pope Francis on March 13, 2013 was attended by the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople, the first known time this has ever occurred!
The Crusades leave one wondering is there really such an entity as a just war? The Commandments direct us not to kill.
And Jesus himself instructed us:
"Do not resist one who is evil.
If anyone strikes you on the right cheek,
turn to him the other also.
Gospel of Matthew 5:39
"Then Jesus said to him, "Put your sword back into its sheath,
For all who take the sword will perish by the sword."
Gospel of Matthew 26:52
Peace I leave with you, my peace I give to you:
Not as the world gives do I give it to you.
Do not let your hearts be troubled or afraid.
Gospel of John 14:27
May the Crusades be an important lesson to all of us who cherish peace.
1 Robert the Monk of Rheims, "The Speech of Pope Urban II at Clermont," in The First Crusade, Second Edition. Edward Peters, Editor: (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998), 28.
2 "Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres," Book I, in Peters, ed: The First Crusade, 63-101.
3 Anonymous. Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolymitanorum (in original Latin), Heinrich Hagenmeyer, ed: (Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1890), 151.
4 Pope Urban II, "Letters and Speech at Clermont," in The Crusades: Idea and Reality, 1095-1274, eds: Louise and Jonathan Riley-Smith (London: Edward Arnold Publishers, 1981), 1-53, 63-67.
5Revised Standard Version of the Holy Bible, Navarre Bible Series. Dublin, Ireland: Four Courts Press, 1999-2005.
6 Eric H. Cline. Jerusalem Besieged - From Ancient Canaan to Modern Israel. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004), 11-35, 164-200, 235, 338, 2004.
7 Philip K. Hitti. History of the Arabs, Tenth Edition. (London: MacMillan Education, 1970), 112-138, 220-221.
8 Chris Lowney. A Vanished World - Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Medieval Spain. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 79-84, 138, 193.
9 Armand Citarella. "The Relations of Amalfi with the Arab world before the Crusades," Speculum 42 (April, 1967): 299-312.
10 Elizabeth Hallam. Chronicles of the Crusades - Eye-witness accounts of the Wars between Christianity and Islam. (New York: Welcome Rain, 2000), 23-93, 115-117, 387-389.
11 James Todesca. Medieval History: Crusade and Coexistence. Class Lectures, Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, Georgia, 2013.
12 Alan Schreck. Historical Foundations, Class Lectures, Franciscan University, Steubenville, Ohio, 2003. Compact History of the Catholic Church. St. Anthony Messenger Press, Cincinnati, Ohio, 37-52, 2009.
13 Thomas Bokenkotter. Concise History of the Catholic Church. (New York: Image Books, Doubleday, 2004), 110-141.
16 Matthew of Edessa, "The Seljuk Conquests," in The Crusades: A Reader, eds: SJ Allen and Emilie Ant (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010), 31-34.
17 Thomas F. Madden. New Concise History of the Crusades. (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005), ix-14.
18 St. Augustine, De Civitate Dei - The City of God, "It is in no way contrary to the commandment Thou shalt not kill to wage war at God's bidding, or for the representatives of the State's authority to put criminals to death, according to law or the rule of rational justice" (Book I, Chapter 21); "For it is the injustice of the opposing side that lays on the wise men the duty of waging wars" (Book XIX, 7). (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1950-1954), Vol I, 53; Vol 3, 207.
19 HEJ Cowdrey. "The Peace and Truce of God in the Eleventh Century." Past and Present 46 (1970): 42-67.
20 Diana Webb. Pilgrims and Pilgrimages in the Medieval West. (London: I. B. Taurus, 2001), 11-20.
21 WB Bartlett. God Wills It: An Illustrated History of the Crusades. (Phoenix Mill, United Kingdom: Sutton Publishing Limited, 2000), 1-59.
22 Carl Erdmann. The Origin of the Idea of Crusade, Germany, 1935; trans: MW Baldwin and W Goffart. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977), 57-94, 136-140.
23 Jonathan Riley-Smith. The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986), 22.
24 Sir Steven Runciman. History of the Crusades, in 3 volumes. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem; Volume II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem; Volume III: The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951-1954), Volume I, 35-64, 84-110, 142-194, 327-335.
25 Thomas Asbridge. The Crusades: The War for the Holy Land. (London: Simon & Schuster UK, 2010), 28, 42, 89-124, 692, 722-725.
26 Madden, New Concise History, 15-35.
27 Ronald Roberson. The Eastern Christian Churches, Seventh Edition. (Rome: Pontifical Oriental Institute, 2008), 39-54, 133-183.
28 Runciman, Volume I, 213-288.
29 Hallam, 87-93.
30 Amin Maalouf. The Crusades Through Arab Eyes. (London: Al-Saqi Books, 1984), Foreword.
31 Jonathan Riley-Smith. The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading, 153-155.
32 "Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres," Book II, in Allen and Ant, 87.
33 "The Crusades and the Crusader States," in New Catholic Encyclopedia, Second Edition. (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2003), Volume IV, 401-415.
34 Asbridge, 154-189.
35 "Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres," Book III, in Peters (ed): The First Crusade, 281-282.
36 Jonathan Riley-Smith. Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 163.
37 JW Brodman, "Rule and Identity: the Case of the Military Orders," Catholic Historical Review 88 (July 2001): 383-400.
38 AJ Forey, "The Military Order of St. Thomas of Acre," English Historical Review 92 (July 1977): 481-503.
39 Pope Eugenius III. Quantum Praedecessores, in Louise Riley-Smith, 57-59.
40 Joseph F. O'Callaghan. A History of Medieval Spain, (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1975), 229-232.
41 Runciman, History of the Crusades Volume II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East 1100-1187, 252-285.
42 Madden, New Concise History, 52-62.
43 Maalouf, 176-217.
44 Bartlett, 148-190, 193-198.
45 Allen and Ant (eds), 148-179.
46 Asbridge, 342-364, 452-455, 477-516.
47 Runciman, Volume II, 403-473.
48 Hallam, 176-195.
49 Runciman, History of the Crusades Volume III: The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades, 68, 3-75.
50 Bartlett, 191-192.
51 Madden, New Concise History, 68-95.
52 Runciman, Volume III, 107-131.
53 Bartlett, 199-210
54 Madden, New Concise History, 96-120.
55 Runciman, Volume III, 130.
56 Hallam, 247-256.
57 Runciman, Volume III, 132-170.
58 Madden, New Concise History, 143-165.
59 Allen and Ant (eds), 343-347, 352-355.
60 Asbridge, 577-608.
61 Hallam, 264-281.
62 Madden, New Concise History, 166-186.
63 Asbridge, 654-681.
64 Scott Anderson. Lawrence in Arabia. (New York: Random House Anchor Books, 2014), 388-406.
65 Dante Alighieri. The Divine Comedy, original publication, Ravenna, Italy, 1320. Saladin resides in Limbo with the virtuous who did not know Christ, such as the great writers Virgil, Plato, and Aristotle. Limbo lies on the outer rim of Inferno, illuminated by the light of human reason. See Inferno, Canto IV, line 129. St. Francis of Assisi lives in the fourth sphere of heaven, along with the great leaders of the Church, such as St. Dominic. Canto XI of Paradiso is primarily about St. Francis. He is also afforded a direct vision of God in the Mystic Rose - see Paradiso, Canto XXXII, line 35. Translation by John Ciardi, Modern Library, Random House, New York, 1996.
66 Thomas F. Madden. Crusades, the Illustrated History. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005), 151.
67 Second Vatican Council. Decree on Ecumenism - Unitatis Redintegratio. Vatican City, 14 November 1964.
68 Pope John Paul II. That All May Be One, the encyclical Ut Unum Sint, Vatican City, May 25, 1995.
69 Douglas K. Clark, "Pope John Paul II," Southern Cross Newspaper, Diocese of Savannah, Georgia, March 16, 2000.
70 Clark, "Brothers in Christ," Southern Cross, May 2, 2013.